Exploration of countertransference reactions is a critical component of effective supervision (Falender & Shafranske, 2004). This study investigated the supervisor-supervisee relationship (working alliance) and its influence on supervisee countertransference disclosures. Three hundred thirty-two doctoral students responded to a recruitment invitation, forwarded by e-mail by their directors of clinical training. Participants completed the Working Alliance Inventory - Supervisee form (WAI-S) (Bahrick, 1990), a demographic questionnaire, and a Personal Reaction Disclosure Questionnaire, which asked about the respondent's comfort and likelihood of disclosing countertransference in vignettes of 8 commonly reported personal reactions of psychotherapists (Betan, Heim, Conklin, & Westen, 2005). Results indicated that there were positive associations between supervisory alliance and reported comfort and likelihood of supervisee countertransference disclosures (p = < .05). Variables such as gender, ethnicity, theoretical orientation match, or supervisee developmental level were not found to have an influence on the likelihood of or comfort with disclosures, suggesting that the strength of the working alliance has the strongest influence on disclosures in supervision.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (PsyD) -- Psychology; Countertransference (Psychology)

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Shafranske, Edward;