The Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) dispensation requires a Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP) in which the public participates in a Public Planning Process (PPP) with the district. The problem this qualitative phenomenographic study addressed is how the LCAP's omission of a definition for the inclusive and transparent PPP may unintentionally lead to disproportionate inclusion of individual participants or stakeholder groups. Therefore, the researched examined 10 California school district superintendents' or their designees' conceptions about what constitutes an inclusive, fair, and open PPP. For the purposes of this study, the International Association for Public Participation's (IAP2) Quality Assurance Standards, specifically the 7 core values, served as the conceptual framework. The objective of the research was twofold, first to identify how local educational agency (LEA) leaders conceive the use of the IAP2's core values to define successful public stakeholder engageme

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (EdD) -- Educational leadership; School budgets -- California; School improvement programs -- California; School management and organization -- California -- Research

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Kirnon, Stephen;