Public schools in the 21st century are faced with multiple challenges, many of which are guided by State and Federal mandates aimed at closing the achievement gap that continues to exist between our White, Non-Hispanic children and children of color, and a growing number of children living in poverty. From No Child Left Behind to the ESEA Flexibility Initiative, adoption of the Common Core, and most recently, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), school leaders have been called on to provide greater accountability, more uniform instruction, higher academic standards, and stricter teacher evaluation standards. Amidst this flood of managerial and instructional demands, public school leaders are faced with meeting the needs of increasingly racially, ethnically, linguistically, and economically diverse school populations. No longer is it enough to be an effective school leader; today’s school leaders must also be culturally competent, and must possess the transformational leadership skills that can guide their schools toward becoming culturally responsive institutions. This study, utilizing the intercultural Development Inventory (IDI, v3) developed by Mitchell R. Hammer (2012) as the base instrument, examines the relationship between the intercultural development of school leaders, selected demographic variables, and student achievement. The focus of the study involves 53 school leaders and 18 different schools in Illinois. Through correlations of school leader IDI (v3) results, self-reported demographic data, and in-depth reviews of publicly available school data, knowledge of how a school leader’s intercultural development impacts student achievement is explored.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (EdD) -- Organizational leadership; Public schools -- United States -- Evaluation; Intercultural communication; Educational leadership

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

McManus, John F.;