The increase in mobile technology options for students in post-secondary, continuing education influences how instructors design and implement courses, specifically online courses (Sözcü, İpek, & Kınay, 2016). Much of the current research addresses technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPaCK), course design, and/or mobile technology as separate topics. There is limited research addressing the combination of TPaCK, design, and mobile technology from the course instructors’ perspective. The mixed methods study addressed design for online, mobile learning with a new layer of the TPaCK instructional framework in three phases. Phase 1 involved a pilot study of a survey that measured TPaCK, lesson design practices, and design perceptions. The pilot study responses informed Phase 2. In Phase 2, the survey was given to 33 current online course facilitators from PBS TeacherLine, an online continuing education course provider. Responses were gathered. In Phase 3, a qualitative interview designed to understand online course instructors’ perceptions of their use of mobile technology, design decisions, and the TPaCK, instructional framework was conducted with a random sample of twelve people from the survey participant pool. The threefold data collection process allowed for a triangulation of the findings, which heightened construct validity and comprehensive understanding. In Finding 1, 100% of the online continuing education course facilitators integrated TPaCK in their courses through the use of mobile and digital tools. In Finding 2, 100% of the online continuing education course facilitators made dynamic and innovative mobile and digital design decisions through the creation of supplemental course content. In Finding 3, 92% of online continuing education course facilitators utilized mobile technology in their online courses through an innovative inclusion of both mobile devices and mobile apps. Five conclusions resulted from the study and are discussed. The study contributes to existing literature by providing a 6-point effectiveness checklist, with the acronym “SCROLL” to operationalize for the professional development of pre-service and current online course facilitators.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (EdD) -- Learning technologies; Distance education; Educational technology -- Evaluation; Education, Higher -- Effect of technological innovations on

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

McManus, John F.;