Anneka Busse


The purpose of this study was to investigate the likelihood of disclosure and comfort in disclosure of personal reactions occurring in the conduct of psychotherapy in the clinical supervision of marriage and family therapy trainees and interns/associates. This study replicated and expanded on Pakdaman, Shafranske and Falender's (2014) and Daniel's (2008) analog studies of the effects of supervisory alliance on self-reported comfort and likelihood of disclosure of personal reactions in therapy with psychology interns and trainees. This study also investigated the relationship between working alliance and experiences of isomorphism and parallel process. There were a total of 161 participants; 56 trainees and 105 interns. The majority of the participants identified as female, Caucasian and heterosexual. Results indicated if trainees have a strong working alliance with their supervisor, they would feel safe and supported when sharing they are having personal reactions in therapy and if they feel isomorphism or parallel process is occurring. The results of this study have implications for supervision of marriage and family therapy therapists and possibly the field of mental health in general, as results were replicated from previous studies. The implications of the results are further explored.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (PsyD) -- Psychology; Family therapists -- Training of; Marriage counselors -- Training of; Family therapists -- Supervision of; Marriage counselors -- Supervision of; Family therapists -- Attitudes; Marriage counselors -- Attitudes

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Shafranske, Edward;