This study focuses on parent-to-offspring (PTO) disclosure, the dialogue from parent to child about the child's genetic makeup, with the intention of contributing to the creation of resources for egg recipient parents struggling with PTO disclosure decisions. A comprehensive literature review synthesized the literature on the disclosure decision, identifying key controversial issues. The principal investigator then created nine disclosure scripts based on the qualitative research of Mac Dougall, Becker, Scheib, and Nachtigall (2007) as well as a book written by a psychologist working in the field of third party reproduction. Egg recipient parents were invited to evaluate the scripts and provide additional information about the PTO decision process through an online survey. Fifty-two completed surveys were analyzed, a 4% response rate. Participants were predominantly mothers, married or partnered, American, Caucasian, heterosexual, highly-educated, and with children under five years old. Findings provide evidence for the need of script resources and the benefit of professional consultation to reach a disclosure decision. Further analyses were conducted after classifying participants into three categories: Disclosers (59.1%), Non-disclosers (18.4%), and Undecided (22.5%). The Disclosers rated two scripts significantly higher than the others, suggesting the usefulness of "Helper" and "Come and Talk" approaches with very young children. The discussion addresses limitations of the study, recommendations for professionals, and directions for future research. The review of the literature and this study's findings demonstrate the need for increased efforts towards identifying and disseminating helpful PTO resources to gamete recipient parents.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Human reproductive technology -- Social aspects; Dissertations (PsyD) -- Psychology

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Ingram, Barbara L.