The purpose of this study was to develop a resource manual for teachers, educators, and community officials in the Los Angeles area to facilitate identification of an intervention program that meets their specific needs. The methodology of this project involved several steps. First, Internet research identified bully intervention programs in the Los Angeles area, who were contacted for participation in the research study. A total of seven programs were interviewed regarding program elements, including use of "effective" intervention strategies, as identified by previous research. The interview data was organized into a resource manual, along with information about bullying (i.e., definitions, types, risk factors). Following compilation of the resource manual, an expert evaluator was identified based on prior experience and research in the field of bullying. The evaluator was contacted and asked to participate in the evaluation phase of the study, which included review of the manual and completion of a brief survey. Following the evaluation phase, the manual was modified to reflect the evaluator's feedback. Results of the study indicate that the programs varied in length (i.e., 60 minutes to 1 year) and cost (i.e., free to $8,000) of training, and that all utilized interventions at the systemic levels of individual, classroom, school, and community. The most commonly endorsed intervention techniques included incident reporting, school-wide presentations, social skills training, increased social support, and engagement of families and the community. Use of other intervention strategies was varied. Thematic analysis revealed that several programs were nonprofit in nature, and shared similarities across websites (e.g., links to social media, program materials). In addition, several programs offered training in school and community settings, follow-up services, and an empathy-based approach. Obstacles to bullying intervention were also discussed. Results from the evaluation phase of the manual indicated specific strengths (i.e., informative, user-friendly) and limitations (i.e., lack of formal evaluation of programs) of the resource manual, which were considered during finalization of the manual content. The intention is that the resource manual will enhance the readers' ability to make informed decisions about the use of bullying intervention programs, and therefore confidently respond to bullying incidents.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (PsyD) -- Psychology; Bullying in schools -- California -- Los Angeles; Bullying in schools -- Prevention -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.; School violence -- Prevention -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Keatinge, Carolyn;