Gordon Carter


This study examined a social exchange approach to influencing employee attitudes, behavior, and performance. Social exchange theory predicts that employees will respond, in kind, to the treatment they receive from the organization. It was proposed, therefore, that organizations can influence the attitudes, behavior, and performance of employees by attending to the relationships that develop between employees and the organization. This study examined the relationships between leader-member exchange, organizational citizenship behavior, and perceived organizational support. Surveys were administered to 49 employees and their supervisors at three separate country clubs located in the southwestern United States. Perceptions of organizational support, leader-member exchange, and organizational citizenship behavior were assessed. Mean scores, standard deviations, analysis of variance, and Spearman's correlations were calculated to measure the constructs and determine possible relationships. Overall, employees reported that they believed they received some support from the organization and some support from their manager. Employees' altruistic and general compliance behaviors were rated favorably by their supervisors. Analysis of variance calculations suggested that these variables did not vary by age, gender, education, or tenure. The research aimed to answer three questions: Does leader-member exchange have a positive relationship on organizational citizenship behavior? Does perceived organizational support have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior? Does leader-member exchange have a stronger relationship to organizational citizenship behavior than perceived organization support to organizational citizenship behavior? The results showed a positive, statistically significant relationship between general compliance and altruism (from the organizational citizenship behavior survey) and between perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange. These results suggest that as altruism increases, general compliance also increases (and vice versa). Similarly, as perceived organizational support increases, leader-member exchange also tends to increase (and vice versa). No other relationships among the variables could be concluded. Limitations of this study are its small sample, the applicability of organizational citizenship behavior to a hospitality setting, the limitations of quantitative research for complex topics, and the natural conflict between customer service and organizational citizenship behavior.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Research projects (MSOD); Social exchange; Employees -- Attitudes

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graziadio Business School



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Mangiofico, Gary;