A mixed methods systematic review with socioecological analysis was conducted to identify specific psychosocial factors impacting identity development and well-being and biracial-biethnic youth. Findings from this review aimed to summarize and synthesize the most recent research literature on biracial-biethnic youth, with particular attention to factors contributing to negative identity development, psychosocial stressors (e.g., substance use) that impact both identity and well-being, and protective factors that promote well-being. This systematic review also aimed to utilize a socioecological framework to better understand on what level these psychosocial factors occur and the interaction between the individual and the larger environment. Methods. Data was collected from seven electronic databases and included peer-reviewed English language articles that were published between 1980 and 2022 and were conducted with youth identifying as more than one race or ethnicity, aged 13 to 25. All studies were required to evaluate at least one socioecological level (Individual, Microsystem, Community/Organizational, Macrosystem) and include biracial-biethnic participants with at least one minority-identified parent. Results. Findings from 338 studies revealed that 91% of studies were conducted within the United States. A total of 133 studies (40.2%) utilized the word multiracial to describe individuals of more than one race or ethnicity. The majority of studies (> 50%) indicated that psychosocial factors most often occur on the individual level across each research question. There were significant factors noted across all four socioecological levels of analysis. Conclusions. There was a lack of consensus in the language utilized by researchers to define individuals of two or more races or ethnicities, with no consistent term used. It was also found that individual factors and interpersonal relationships have a significant impact, both negatively and positively, on identity and well-being in biracial-biethnic youth. Future research should continue to expand upon using more inclusive language, further explore protective factors and identity development, and focus on systemic factors that could lead to increased sustained change for the biracial-biethnic population.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Racially mixed teenagers; Racially mixed people; Youth in development; Identity (Philosophical concept)

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Amy Tuttle-Guerrero

Included in

Psychology Commons