The Lebanese population and culture are recognized for their resilience when facing adversity withstanding events such as the Lebanese Civil War, and multiple country invasions. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of retail business owners from different geographical regions and retail types in Lebanon and to identify the leadership factors that kept them resilient while navigating the compounding crises since 2019. The leadership factors included leadership styles, strategies, and agility. The conceptual framework encompassed all leadership factors, the retail industry, cultural context, and resilience. Data for this hermeneutic phenomenology was collected through semi-structured interviews followed by document analysis of the 13 participants. Based on the findings, the study had four major conclusions. A combination of value-centered and adaptive leadership styles was prominent among the retail leaders in Lebanon, which led to collective resilience. The overlap of the strategies during the different phases of the crises affected resilience. High levels of agility coupled with reflective action nurtured resilience in a country in a constant VUCA state. Finally, the interplay of leadership factors resulted in the retail leaders’ collective and leadership resilience. So, from the conceptual framework, the researcher proposed the MIRA (Multifaceted Intercultural Resilience Approaches) Leadership model. Therefore, the findings and conclusions indicate that integrating the MIRA Leadership model into training and mentorship programs, and curriculums would benefit business schools, policymakers, and retail business owners to foster collective resilience. The study also encourages other researchers to conduct inclusive studies considering diverse geographic regions and participants, capturing a holistic perspective, and refining the model further.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Resilience (Personality trait)--Lebanon; Retail trade—Ownership—Lebanon; Retail trade--Leadership

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Martine Jago