Due to the rapid pace at which emerging technologies are evolving, many educators fell apprehensive toward shifting their pedagogy to stay relevant with technology adoption practices and 21st Century learning expectations. There is limited research connecting the adoption practices of early and late adopters to individual inherent motivational preferences. The goal of this multi-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study sought to produce detailed findings of early and late adopters' tendencies and establish a connection to their motivation and integration practices. Additionally, this research sought to discover the impact that attitudes and perceived/actual barriers have on resistance to technology integration.

K-8 certificated public elementary educators (N = 172) across the United Stats participated in an online survey designed to measure their motivations, attitudes, and technology integration practices. Eight individuals participated in a follow-up individual interview for in-depth discussion regarding their experiences and frustrations with integrating technology into their instructional practices. Findings substantiated the researcher's claim that intrinsically motivated individuals often display early adopter tendencies; being high ambitious self-directed problem solvers who value innovation. Five main thematic categories with 22 subthemes emerged from the analysis of open-ended survey items and interview transcripts including attitudes toward adoption; barriers/challenges to integrating technology; student learning through technology; technology support systems; and technology integration practices.

Triangulation of findings resulted in four conclusions: intrinsic motivation plays a more significant role than extrinsic motivation for technology integration; the perception of a steep learning curve confounds the adoption process of innovative practices; generational stereotypes continue to impede the integration of technology in the classroom; and the reality of rapidly evolving technology continues to disrupt integration efforts.

Findings contribute to existing literature by providing insights into how limiting beliefs manifest in motivational patterns and resistance to adoption. Recommendations for future research include investigating current professional development practices and the underutilization of teacher supports, exploring how to minimize the effects of generational stereotypes, studying self-directed learners and their preferred learning processes, observing pedagogical practices in real-time, and exploring the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on motivational patterns and technology integration practices of educators.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Educational technology -- Education (Elementary) -- Case studies; Elementary school teachers -- Attitudes; Personality and motivation

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Kay Davis