Roxanne Smith


The disparities in health care and the challenges of healthcare leaders in achieving positive health outcomes are a priority in America. Much discourse and policy is currently evolving in the legislative and executive branches of government. The United States has the highest health expenditures in the world and is classified as one of the unhealthiest countries. Many factors contribute to the disparities. These factors include socioeconomic, cultural competency, social determinants, policy, and health leadership. The challenge for health leaders is to identify strategies to improve the trends and the status of health quality and well-being for all Americans. This study employed qualitative research using a phenomenological approach; surveying healthcare leaders in the United States. Data collection employed in-depth interviews of healthcare leaders with at least two years of experience in their current role. This qualitative study identified challenges of leaders in health care, best practices of successful healthcare leaders to improve patient access, narrow the gap of health-related disparities, and evaluated techniques and methods to improve health outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. The research questions (RQ) posed in the research were: RQ1: What are the challenges you face regarding influencing healthcare outcomes? RQ2: What current strategies do you use to address these challenges and barriers? RQ3: How do you measure and track you success with overcoming challenges and barriers? RQ4: What recommendations would healthcare leaders provide to aspiring leaders in healthcare to improve outcomes?

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dissertations (EdD) -- Organizational leadership; Medical personnel -- Case studies; Leadership -- Case studies; Medical care -- United States

Date of Award


School Affiliation

Graduate School of Education and Psychology



Degree Type


Degree Name


Faculty Advisor

Madjidi, Farzin;