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Book Chapter

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Intelligence has a variety of definitions, such as a set of mental skills that helps individuals reach a goal, or the ability to use knowledge and skills to overcome obstacles. Most definitions of intelligence include phrases such as knowing and understanding the reality around us. Intelligence usually includes processes such as recognition, categorization, thinking, and memory. In psychology, the psychometric approach to intelligence is based on the assumption that our intelligence can be represented in a numerical value. According to the nativist approach, human cognitive phenomena are inborn, and they unravel as a result of biological programming. Various tests show differences in intelligence scores among large cultural groups. Some specialists maintain that intelligence tests may contain internal bias because they use words that are familiar only to some groups. In addition, many environmental conditions have been found to influence performance on intelligence tests. Intelligence scores are, in general, positively correlated with the socioeconomic status of the individual. There is a difference in the way people across cultures value and construe intelligence. Cognitive processes have cross-cultural similarity but may also develop in different ways according to specific cultural norms and societal demands.

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