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The Middle East is no stranger to conflict. In particular, the land currently called "Israel" has been through the hands of many dynasties and has long been the center of religious development and identity. Despite turmoil and failed attempts at achieving peace, there is no excuse for complacency in resolving this intolerable Israeli-Palestinian divide. The conflict is arguably the longest, most complicated, deep-seated, and vicious battle in modern history. This article explores various fundamentals of negotiation and settlement with the hopes of spurring ideas, and furthering an interest in how this great conflict might finally be resolved. Recognizing most topics and single events mentioned in the history of the Middle East conflict have been the sole focus of entire books, or even volumes of books, their depth of treatment in this article is intentionally shallow. The first objective is to obtain a good sense of where we are today regarding the Middle East and the position of the parties without regard to the equities involved. Attention will be paid to past negotiation efforts in the Middle East, noting both failures and successes to discern the types of negotiation tactics that are most likely to succeed. After surveying this background, the principles of negotiation will be explored as well as suggestions on how the parties might pave the road to peace.