Chumash medicinal plants Sambucus mexicana (Mexican elderberry) and Trichostema lanatum (woolly blue curls) were tested for immunomodulatory activity. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined by treating LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with plant extracts and measuring the levels of cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). We hypothesized that both plants would exert immunomodulatory activity by reducing the pro-inflammatory production of TNF-alpha or by promoting M2 polarization with a concurrent increase in IL-10 production. At concentration 0.01 mg/mL woolly blue curls and Mexican elderberry demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the concentration of TNF-alpha in vitro, while levels of IL-10 were indistinguishable.
Hester, Victoria and Joyner, P. Matthew, "Immunomodulatory Activity of Sambucus mexicana and Trichostema lanatum on LPS Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells" (2013). Pepperdine University, All Undergraduate Student Research. Paper 58.