Chumash medicinal plants Sambucus mexicana (Mexican elderberry) and Trichostema lanatum (woolly blue curls) were tested for immunomodulatory activity. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined by treating LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with plant extracts and measuring the levels of cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). We hypothesized that both plants would exert immunomodulatory activity by reducing the pro-inflammatory production of TNF-alpha or by promoting M2 polarization with a concurrent increase in IL-10 production. At concentration 0.01 mg/mL woolly blue curls and Mexican elderberry demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the concentration of TNF-alpha in vitro, while levels of IL-10 were indistinguishable.
Hester, Victoria and Joyner, P. Matthew, "Immunomodulatory Activity of Sambucus mexicana and Trichostema lanatum on LPS Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells" (2013). Pepperdine University, Featured Research. Paper 58.