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This essay will explore the different theories of civilization for two major Asian political philosophers Fukuzawa Yukichi, and Sun Yat-sen. Both men wrote during the late 19th and early 20th century just as their respective countries, Japan and China, were facing immense pressure to subordinate themselves to the West which threatened the collapse of their historical structures of civilization. The two men’s theories reflect the transitory nature of the times by drawing heavily from both Eastern and Western traditions to create a unique blend of the two which would have an immense impact on the modern course of their two nations. This essay is a juxtaposition and critical analysis of both philosophers’ interpretations of the contemporaneous events and their proposed course of action to ensure the well-being of their own countries. The substance and argument of this essay draw exclusively from primary source documents and consult every available primary source in English written by the two authors.