A chronic physical activity treatment in obese rats normalizes the contributions of ET-1 and NO to insulin-mediated posterior cerebral artery vasodilation
This study tested the hypotheses that obesity-induced decrements in insulin-stimulated cerebrovascular vasodilation would be normalized with acute endothelin-1a receptor antagonism and that treatment with a physical activity intervention restores vasoreactivity to insulin through augmented nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent dilation. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were divided into the following groups:20 wk old food controlled (CON-20); 20 wk old free food access (model of obesity, OB-20); 40 wk old food controlled (CON-40); 40 wk old free food access (OB-40); and 40 wk old free food access+RUN (RUN-40; wheel-running access from 20 to 40 wk). Rats underwent Barnes maze testing and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). In the 40-wk cohort, cerebellum and hippocampus blood flow (BF) were examined (microsphere infusion). Vasomotor responses (pressurized myography) to insulin were assessed in untreated, endothelin-1a receptor antagonism, and NOS inhibition conditions in posterior cerebral arteries. Insulin-stimulated vasodilation was attenuated in the OB vs. CON and RUN groups (P ≤ 0.04). Dilation to insulin was normalized with endothelin-1a receptor antagonism in the OB groups (between groups, P ≥ 0.56), and insulin-stimulated NOS-mediated dilation was greater in the RUN-40 vs. OB-40 group (P < 0.01). At 40 wk of age, cerebellum BF decreased during EHC in the OB-40 group (P = 0.02) but not CON or RUN groups (P ≥ 0.36). Barnes maze testing revealed increased entry errors and latencies in the RUN-40 vs. CON and OB groups (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that obesity-induced impairments in vasoreactivity to insulin involve increased endothelin-1 and decreased nitric oxide signaling. Chronic spontaneous physical activity, initiated after disease onset, reversed impaired vasodilation to insulin and decreased Barnes maze performance, possibly because of increased exploratory behavior.
Journal of Applied Physiology
Olver, T. Dylan; Mcdonald, Matthew W.; Klakotskaia, Diana; Richardson, Rachel A.; Jasperse, Jeffrey L.; Melling, C. W.James; Schachtman, Todd R.; Yang, Hsiao T.; Emter, Craig A.; and Laughlin, M. Harold, "A chronic physical activity treatment in obese rats normalizes the contributions of ET-1 and NO to insulin-mediated posterior cerebral artery vasodilation" (2017). Pepperdine University, Faculty Open Access Publications. Paper 110.