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In this article, I demonstrate that mediation is an important form of dispute resolution, displaying benefits when compared with adjudication. I try to refine what mediation is by contrasting it with judicial settlement conferences and conciliation. Regarding the ongoing process in Brazil, I state that every society should adapt a mediation program that is attainable for its social-economic and cultural reality. Criticizing the current Brazilian policies, I present the positive and negative aspects of the Resolution No. 125 of the National Council of Justice (CNJ), analyzing a possible program design feasible for the country, focusing on the issues of funding, referral system, and the selection and training of possible mediators.